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systemctl 命令完全指南

2015年09月19日,分类《Linux》,作者:
博客捐助

Systemctl是一个systemd工具,主要负责控制systemd系统和服务管理器。

Systemd是一个系统管理守护进程、工具和库的集合,用于取代System V初始进程。Systemd的功能是用于集中管理和配置类UNIX系统。

在Linux生态系统中,Systemd被部署到了大多数的标准Linux发行版中,只有为数不多的几个发行版尚未部署。Systemd通常是所有其它守护进程的父进程,但并非总是如此。

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使用Systemctl管理Linux服务

本文旨在阐明在运行systemd的系统上“如何控制系统和服务”。

Systemd初体验和Systemctl基础

1. 首先检查你的系统中是否安装有systemd并确定当前安装的版本

  1. # systemctl --version
  2. systemd 215
  3. +PAM +AUDIT +SELINUX +IMA +SYSVINIT +LIBCRYPTSETUP +GCRYPT +ACL +XZ -SECCOMP -APPARMOR

上例中很清楚地表明,我们安装了215版本的systemd。

2. 检查systemd和systemctl的二进制文件和库文件的安装位置

  1. # whereis systemd
  2. systemd: /usr/lib/systemd /etc/systemd /usr/share/systemd /usr/share/man/man1/systemd.1.gz
  3. # whereis systemctl
  4. systemctl: /usr/bin/systemctl /usr/share/man/man1/systemctl.1.gz

3. 检查systemd是否运行

  1. # ps -eaf | grep [s]ystemd
  2. root 1 0 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system --deserialize 23
  3. root 444 1 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
  4. root 469 1 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-udevd
  5. root 555 1 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-logind
  6. dbus 556 1 0 16:27 ? 00:00:00 /bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=systemd: --nofork --nopidfile --systemd-activation

注意:systemd是作为父进程(PID=1)运行的。在上面带(-e)参数的ps命令输出中,选择所有进程,(-a)选择除会话前导外的所有进程,并使用(-f)参数输出完整格式列表(即 -eaf)。

也请注意上例中后随的方括号和例子中剩余部分。方括号表达式是grep的字符类表达式的一部分。

4. 分析systemd启动进程

  1. # systemd-analyze
  2. Startup finished in 487ms (kernel) + 2.776s (initrd) + 20.229s (userspace) = 23.493s

5. 分析启动时各个进程花费的时间

  1. # systemd-analyze blame
  2. 8.565s mariadb.service
  3. 7.991s webmin.service
  4. 6.095s postfix.service
  5. 4.311s httpd.service
  6. 3.926s firewalld.service
  7. 3.780s kdump.service
  8. 3.238s tuned.service
  9. 1.712s network.service
  10. 1.394s lvm2-monitor.service
  11. 1.126s systemd-logind.service
  12. ....

6. 分析启动时的关键链

  1. # systemd-analyze critical-chain
  2. The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
  3. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.
  4. multi-user.target @20.222s
  5. └─mariadb.service @11.657s +8.565s
  6. └─network.target @11.168s
  7. └─network.service @9.456s +1.712s
  8. └─NetworkManager.service @8.858s +596ms
  9. └─firewalld.service @4.931s +3.926s
  10. └─basic.target @4.916s
  11. └─sockets.target @4.916s
  12. └─dbus.socket @4.916s
  13. └─sysinit.target @4.905s
  14. └─systemd-update-utmp.service @4.864s +39ms
  15. └─auditd.service @4.563s +301ms
  16. └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @4.485s +69ms
  17. └─rhel-import-state.service @4.342s +142ms
  18. └─local-fs.target @4.324s
  19. └─boot.mount @4.286s +31ms
  20. └─systemd-fsck@dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d19608096
  21. └─dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.device @4

重要:Systemctl接受服务(.service),挂载点(.mount),套接口(.socket)和设备(.device)作为单元。

7. 列出所有可用单元

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files
  2. UNIT FILE STATE
  3. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount static
  4. dev-hugepages.mount static
  5. dev-mqueue.mount static
  6. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount static
  7. sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount static
  8. sys-kernel-config.mount static
  9. sys-kernel-debug.mount static
  10. tmp.mount disabled
  11. brandbot.path disabled
  12. .....

8. 列出所有运行中单元

  1. # systemctl list-units
  2. UNIT LOAD ACTIVE SUB DESCRIPTION
  3. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.automount loaded active waiting Arbitrary Executable File Formats File Syste
  4. sys-devices-pc...0-1:0:0:0-block-sr0.device loaded active plugged VBOX_CD-ROM
  5. sys-devices-pc...:00:03.0-net-enp0s3.device loaded active plugged PRO/1000 MT Desktop Adapter
  6. sys-devices-pc...00:05.0-sound-card0.device loaded active plugged 82801AA AC'97 Audio Controller
  7. sys-devices-pc...:0:0-block-sda-sda1.device loaded active plugged VBOX_HARDDISK
  8. sys-devices-pc...:0:0-block-sda-sda2.device loaded active plugged LVM PV Qzyo3l-qYaL-uRUa-Cjuk-pljo-qKtX-VgBQ8
  9. sys-devices-pc...0-2:0:0:0-block-sda.device loaded active plugged VBOX_HARDDISK
  10. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS0.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS0
  11. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS1.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS1
  12. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS2.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS2
  13. sys-devices-pl...erial8250-tty-ttyS3.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/platform/serial8250/tty/ttyS3
  14. sys-devices-virtual-block-dm\x2d0.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/virtual/block/dm-0
  15. sys-devices-virtual-block-dm\x2d1.device loaded active plugged /sys/devices/virtual/block/dm-1
  16. sys-module-configfs.device loaded active plugged /sys/module/configfs
  17. ...

9. 列出所有失败单元

  1. # systemctl --failed
  2. UNIT LOAD ACTIVE SUB DESCRIPTION
  3. kdump.service loaded failed failed Crash recovery kernel arming
  4. LOAD = Reflects whether the unit definition was properly loaded.
  5. ACTIVE = The high-level unit activation state, i.e. generalization of SUB.
  6. SUB = The low-level unit activation state, values depend on unit type.
  7. 1 loaded units listed. Pass --all to see loaded but inactive units, too.
  8. To show all installed unit files use 'systemctl list-unit-files'.

10. 检查某个单元(如 cron.service)是否启用

  1. # systemctl is-enabled crond.service
  2. enabled

11. 检查某个单元或服务是否运行

  1. # systemctl status firewalld.service
  2. firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
  3. Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled)
  4. Active: active (running) since Tue 2015-04-28 16:27:55 IST; 34min ago
  5. Main PID: 549 (firewalld)
  6. CGroup: /system.slice/firewalld.service
  7. └─549 /usr/bin/python -Es /usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid
  8. Apr 28 16:27:51 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon...
  9. Apr 28 16:27:55 tecmint systemd[1]: Started firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon.

使用Systemctl控制并管理服务

12. 列出所有服务(包括启用的和禁用的)

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=service
  2. UNIT FILE STATE
  3. arp-ethers.service disabled
  4. auditd.service enabled
  5. autovt@.service disabled
  6. blk-availability.service disabled
  7. brandbot.service static
  8. collectd.service disabled
  9. console-getty.service disabled
  10. console-shell.service disabled
  11. cpupower.service disabled
  12. crond.service enabled
  13. dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service enabled
  14. ....

13. Linux中如何启动、重启、停止、重载服务以及检查服务(如 httpd.service)状态

  1. # systemctl start httpd.service
  2. # systemctl restart httpd.service
  3. # systemctl stop httpd.service
  4. # systemctl reload httpd.service
  5. # systemctl status httpd.service
  6. httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server
  7. Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled)
  8. Active: active (running) since Tue 2015-04-28 17:21:30 IST; 6s ago
  9. Process: 2876 ExecStop=/bin/kill -WINCH ${MAINPID} (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  10. Main PID: 2881 (httpd)
  11. Status: "Processing requests..."
  12. CGroup: /system.slice/httpd.service
  13. ├─2881 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  14. ├─2884 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  15. ├─2885 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  16. ├─2886 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  17. ├─2887 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  18. └─2888 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  19. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...
  20. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint httpd[2881]: AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully q...ssage
  21. Apr 28 17:21:30 tecmint systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.
  22. Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

注意:当我们使用systemctl的start,restart,stop和reload命令时,我们不会从终端获取到任何输出内容,只有status命令可以打印输出。

14. 如何激活服务并在启动时启用或禁用服务(即系统启动时自动启动服务)

  1. # systemctl is-active httpd.service
  2. # systemctl enable httpd.service
  3. # systemctl disable httpd.service

15. 如何屏蔽(让它不能启动)或显示服务(如 httpd.service)

  1. # systemctl mask httpd.service
  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service'
  3. # systemctl unmask httpd.service
  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/httpd.service'

16. 使用systemctl命令杀死服务

  1. # systemctl kill httpd
  2. # systemctl status httpd
  3. httpd.service - The Apache HTTP Server
  4. Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service; enabled)
  5. Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Tue 2015-04-28 18:01:42 IST; 28min ago
  6. Main PID: 2881 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  7. Status: "Total requests: 0; Current requests/sec: 0; Current traffic: 0 B/sec"
  8. Apr 28 17:37:29 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  9. Apr 28 17:37:29 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  10. Apr 28 17:37:39 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  11. Apr 28 17:37:39 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  12. Apr 28 17:37:49 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  13. Apr 28 17:37:49 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  14. Apr 28 17:37:59 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  15. Apr 28 17:37:59 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: Got notification message from PID 2881, but recepti...bled.
  16. Apr 28 18:01:42 tecmint systemd[1]: httpd.service: control process exited, code=exited status=226
  17. Apr 28 18:01:42 tecmint systemd[1]: Unit httpd.service entered failed state.
  18. Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

使用Systemctl控制并管理挂载点

17. 列出所有系统挂载点

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=mount
  2. UNIT FILE STATE
  3. dev-hugepages.mount static
  4. dev-mqueue.mount static
  5. proc-sys-fs-binfmt_misc.mount static
  6. sys-fs-fuse-connections.mount static
  7. sys-kernel-config.mount static
  8. sys-kernel-debug.mount static
  9. tmp.mount disabled

18. 挂载、卸载、重新挂载、重载系统挂载点并检查系统中挂载点状态

  1. # systemctl start tmp.mount
  2. # systemctl stop tmp.mount
  3. # systemctl restart tmp.mount
  4. # systemctl reload tmp.mount
  5. # systemctl status tmp.mount
  6. tmp.mount - Temporary Directory
  7. Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/tmp.mount; disabled)
  8. Active: active (mounted) since Tue 2015-04-28 17:46:06 IST; 2min 48s ago
  9. Where: /tmp
  10. What: tmpfs
  11. Docs: man:hier(7)
  12. http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/APIFileSystems
  13. Process: 3908 ExecMount=/bin/mount tmpfs /tmp -t tmpfs -o mode=1777,strictatime (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  14. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: Mounting Temporary Directory...
  15. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: tmp.mount: Directory /tmp to mount over is not empty, mounting anyway.
  16. Apr 28 17:46:06 tecmint systemd[1]: Mounted Temporary Directory.

19. 在启动时激活、启用或禁用挂载点(系统启动时自动挂载)

  1. # systemctl is-active tmp.mount
  2. # systemctl enable tmp.mount
  3. # systemctl disable tmp.mount

20. 在Linux中屏蔽(让它不能启用)或可见挂载点

  1. # systemctl mask tmp.mount
  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount'
  3. # systemctl unmask tmp.mount
  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/tmp.mount'

使用Systemctl控制并管理套接口

21. 列出所有可用系统套接口

  1. # systemctl list-unit-files --type=socket
  2. UNIT FILE STATE
  3. dbus.socket static
  4. dm-event.socket enabled
  5. lvm2-lvmetad.socket enabled
  6. rsyncd.socket disabled
  7. sshd.socket disabled
  8. syslog.socket static
  9. systemd-initctl.socket static
  10. systemd-journald.socket static
  11. systemd-shutdownd.socket static
  12. systemd-udevd-control.socket static
  13. systemd-udevd-kernel.socket static
  14. 11 unit files listed.

22. 在Linux中启动、重启、停止、重载套接口并检查其状态

  1. # systemctl start cups.socket
  2. # systemctl restart cups.socket
  3. # systemctl stop cups.socket
  4. # systemctl reload cups.socket
  5. # systemctl status cups.socket
  6. cups.socket - CUPS Printing Service Sockets
  7. Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/cups.socket; enabled)
  8. Active: active (listening) since Tue 2015-04-28 18:10:59 IST; 8s ago
  9. Listen: /var/run/cups/cups.sock (Stream)
  10. Apr 28 18:10:59 tecmint systemd[1]: Starting CUPS Printing Service Sockets.
  11. Apr 28 18:10:59 tecmint systemd[1]: Listening on CUPS Printing Service Sockets.

23. 在启动时激活套接口,并启用或禁用它(系统启动时自启动)

  1. # systemctl is-active cups.socket
  2. # systemctl enable cups.socket
  3. # systemctl disable cups.socket

24. 屏蔽(使它不能启动)或显示套接口

  1. # systemctl mask cups.socket
  2. ln -s '/dev/null' '/etc/systemd/system/cups.socket'
  3. # systemctl unmask cups.socket
  4. rm '/etc/systemd/system/cups.socket'

服务的CPU利用率(分配额)

25. 获取当前某个服务的CPU分配额(如httpd)

  1. # systemctl show -p CPUShares httpd.service
  2. CPUShares=1024

注意:各个服务的默认CPU分配份额=1024,你可以增加/减少某个进程的CPU分配份额。

26. 将某个服务(httpd.service)的CPU分配份额限制为2000 CPUShares/

  1. # systemctl set-property httpd.service CPUShares=2000
  2. # systemctl show -p CPUShares httpd.service
  3. CPUShares=2000

注意:当你为某个服务设置CPUShares,会自动创建一个以服务名命名的目录(如 httpd.service),里面包含了一个名为90-CPUShares.conf的文件,该文件含有CPUShare限制信息,你可以通过以下方式查看该文件:

  1. # vi /etc/systemd/system/httpd.service.d/90-CPUShares.conf
  2. [Service]
  3. CPUShares=2000

27. 检查某个服务的所有配置细节

  1. # systemctl show httpd
  2. Id=httpd.service
  3. Names=httpd.service
  4. Requires=basic.target
  5. Wants=system.slice
  6. WantedBy=multi-user.target
  7. Conflicts=shutdown.target
  8. Before=shutdown.target multi-user.target
  9. After=network.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target systemd-journald.socket basic.target system.slice
  10. Description=The Apache HTTP Server
  11. LoadState=loaded
  12. ActiveState=active
  13. SubState=running
  14. FragmentPath=/usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
  15. ....

28. 分析某个服务(httpd)的关键链

  1. # systemd-analyze critical-chain httpd.service
  2. The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character.
  3. The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character.
  4. httpd.service +142ms
  5. └─network.target @11.168s
  6. └─network.service @9.456s +1.712s
  7. └─NetworkManager.service @8.858s +596ms
  8. └─firewalld.service @4.931s +3.926s
  9. └─basic.target @4.916s
  10. └─sockets.target @4.916s
  11. └─dbus.socket @4.916s
  12. └─sysinit.target @4.905s
  13. └─systemd-update-utmp.service @4.864s +39ms
  14. └─auditd.service @4.563s +301ms
  15. └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup.service @4.485s +69ms
  16. └─rhel-import-state.service @4.342s +142ms
  17. └─local-fs.target @4.324s
  18. └─boot.mount @4.286s +31ms
  19. └─systemd-fsck@dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.service @4.092s +149ms
  20. └─dev-disk-by\x2duuid-79f594ad\x2da332\x2d4730\x2dbb5f\x2d85d196080964.device @4.092s

29. 获取某个服务(httpd)的依赖性列表

  1. # systemctl list-dependencies httpd.service
  2. httpd.service
  3. ├─system.slice
  4. └─basic.target
  5. ├─firewalld.service
  6. ├─microcode.service
  7. ├─rhel-autorelabel-mark.service
  8. ├─rhel-autorelabel.service
  9. ├─rhel-configure.service
  10. ├─rhel-dmesg.service
  11. ├─rhel-loadmodules.service
  12. ├─paths.target
  13. ├─slices.target
  14. ├─-.slice
  15. └─system.slice
  16. ├─sockets.target
  17. ├─dbus.socket
  18. ....

30. 按等级列出控制组

  1. # systemd-cgls
  2. ├─1 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system --deserialize 23
  3. ├─user.slice
  4. └─user-0.slice
  5. └─session-1.scope
  6. ├─2498 sshd: root@pts/0
  7. ├─2500 -bash
  8. ├─4521 systemd-cgls
  9. └─4522 systemd-cgls
  10. └─system.slice
  11. ├─httpd.service
  12. ├─4440 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  13. ├─4442 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  14. ├─4443 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  15. ├─4444 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  16. ├─4445 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  17. └─4446 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
  18. ├─polkit.service
  19. └─721 /usr/lib/polkit-1/polkitd --no-debug
  20. ....

31. 按CPU、内存、输入和输出列出控制组

  1. # systemd-cgtop
  2. Path Tasks %CPU Memory Input/s Output/s
  3. / 83 1.0 437.8M - -
  4. /system.slice - 0.1 - - -
  5. /system.slice/mariadb.service 2 0.1 - - -
  6. /system.slice/tuned.service 1 0.0 - - -
  7. /system.slice/httpd.service 6 0.0 - - -
  8. /system.slice/NetworkManager.service 1 - - - -
  9. /system.slice/atop.service 1 - - - -
  10. /system.slice/atopacct.service 1 - - - -
  11. /system.slice/auditd.service 1 - - - -
  12. /system.slice/crond.service 1 - - - -
  13. /system.slice/dbus.service 1 - - - -
  14. /system.slice/firewalld.service 1 - - - -
  15. /system.slice/lvm2-lvmetad.service 1 - - - -
  16. /system.slice/polkit.service 1 - - - -
  17. /system.slice/postfix.service 3 - - - -
  18. /system.slice/rsyslog.service 1 - - - -
  19. /system.slice/system-getty.slice/getty@tty1.service 1 - - - -
  20. /system.slice/systemd-journald.service 1 - - - -
  21. /system.slice/systemd-logind.service 1 - - - -
  22. /system.slice/systemd-udevd.service 1 - - - -
  23. /system.slice/webmin.service 1 - - - -
  24. /user.slice/user-0.slice/session-1.scope 3 - - - -

控制系统运行等级

32. 启动系统救援模式

  1. # systemctl rescue
  2. Broadcast message from root@tecmint on pts/0 (Wed 2015-04-29 11:31:18 IST):
  3. The system is going down to rescue mode NOW!

33. 进入紧急模式

  1. # systemctl emergency
  2. Welcome to emergency mode! After logging in, type "journalctl -xb" to view
  3. system logs, "systemctl reboot" to reboot, "systemctl default" to try again
  4. to boot into default mode.

34. 列出当前使用的运行等级

  1. # systemctl get-default
  2. multi-user.target

35. 启动运行等级5,即图形模式

  1. # systemctl isolate runlevel5.target
  2. # systemctl isolate graphical.target

36. 启动运行等级3,即多用户模式(命令行)

  1. # systemctl isolate runlevel3.target
  2. # systemctl isolate multiuser.target

36. 设置多用户模式或图形模式为默认运行等级

  1. # systemctl set-default runlevel3.target
  2. # systemctl set-default runlevel5.target

37. 重启、停止、挂起、休眠系统或使系统进入混合睡眠

  1. # systemctl reboot
  2. # systemctl halt
  3. # systemctl suspend
  4. # systemctl hibernate
  5. # systemctl hybrid-sleep

对于不知运行等级为何物的人,说明如下。

  • Runlevel 0 : 关闭系统
  • Runlevel 1 : 救援?维护模式
  • Runlevel 3 : 多用户,无图形系统
  • Runlevel 4 : 多用户,无图形系统
  • Runlevel 5 : 多用户,图形化系统
  • Runlevel 6 : 关闭并重启机器

到此为止吧。保持连线,进行评论。别忘了在下面的评论中为我们提供一些有价值的反馈哦。喜欢我们、与我们分享,求扩散。


via: http://www.tecmint.com/manage-services-using-systemd-and-systemctl-in-linux/



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